After the Allied landings in Normandy and subsequent advance through France and Belgium, the German Army had succeeded in stalling the Allied offensive along their line of defence at the German border - the ‘Siegfried Line’.
Normandy (Operation Overlord)
The 6th Airborne Division had been formed in May 1943 for the Invasion. It was called the ‘6th’ to fool the Germans into believing there were five other airborne divisions already in existence, but in reality there was only the 1st in addition.
Arab intransigence over the surge of Jewish immigration that followed the Holocaust in Europe led to the forming of extreme dissident Zionist groups such as IZL (Irgun Zwai Leumi) and the Stern Gang, all seeking to promote their aims through violence.