On 30 January 1972, since remembered as 'Bloody Sunday', a demonstration was held in Londonderry by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association to protest at the policy of Internment without trial.
About 10,000 people gathered in the Creggan Estate, to walk to the Guildhall to hold a rally. This was forbidden by the authorities. To avoid trouble, the organisers led the march towards Free Derry Corner. A group of protestors moved towards the Security Forces blocking the exits towards the Guildhall.
As Province Reserve Battalion, 1 PARA had been brought to Londonderry and was tasked with an arrest operation against those engaging the Security Forces. This resulted in men from Support Company moving into the ‘Bogside’ area where they opened fire on the protestors.
The initial findings of an enquiry, under Lord Chief Justice Widgery, proved controversial. The later Saville Enquiry concluded, in 2010, that "The firing by soldiers of 1 PARA on Bloody Sunday caused the deaths of 13 people and injury to a similar number, none of whom was posing a threat of causing death or serious injury."